Students cannot understand their textbooks if they have weak reading skills. This can be seen in some of the definitions of the concept: We use integration to find areas, volumes, central points and many useful things and a non uniform curve with some given function. And as foreign language teaching specialists we have to ask ourselves how we can optimally organise the learning environment in such classrooms, for at present, despite their great success, they are still organised in a rather traditional way. The main idea behind it is that second language acquisition takes place through conversational interaction. 41It is thus the active manipulation of language integrated in content during the construction process which makes language learning possible. �6WX}��5��f��h. Integrating Language and Content: How To Suffice it to say that the scant research which has already been done on CLIL has shown that both language and content subject learning benefit enormously from such a methodological set-up. Although language work is not in the centre of classroom activities learners nevertheless develop a foreign language competence, however, which goes far beyond that of ordinary foreign language learners both at secondary and tertiary level. From a constructivist perspective the main aim of an interaction is not negotiation of language and thus language learning but rather negotiation and construction of content and thus also transfer of content. Listeners and readers do not simply receive outside stimuli, they do not just transform these stimuli into something which they can store in their memory. 0000014450 00000 n On the other hand, in the CLIL classroom language is not taught in the same way as in a traditional classroom – it is focused upon when it is necessary and important for the understanding of a specific aspect of the content subject or the academic discipline. Cognitive psychology as one branch of constructivism regards comprehension as a cognitive process in which knowledge available in the human mind interacts with the outer stimuli perceived by the comprehender. 0000163620 00000 n This is, of course, due to the fact that people seem to view things from different perspectives. It is hardly necessary to mention that research and experimentation are highly motivating and involving activities. But they are also highly important in the content subject classroom. In sociology, the concept of social integration refers to a Although the arguments brought together under this first point come from research in secondary education they are also important for tertiary and primary education. In the second part I will look at content and language integrated learning from an SLA perspective, focussing on the interactionist approach and what it has to say about learning a foreign language through interaction. les travaux d’Harold Palmer au début du siècle dernier et ce qui existe déjà dans de nombreuses écoles en Europe), est réalisable et efficace en termes d’économie de temps, en termes d’acquisition de la langue cible et des contenus, et si elle a des répercussions sur la nature même des contenus abordés et des pratiques linguistiques choisies. The following topics describe each of the components required to create an end-to-end integration. Platt, E. & F.B. The most important one is that CLIL must not simply be regarded as an approach to language teaching and learning but that it is concerned both with content and language. In this way a framework for social interaction is provided which contributes, as I pointed out above, both to learning and to language learning. The third and central part of my paper is devoted to cognitive psychology and constructivism as learning theories and as pedagogical approaches. 2001. The Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget placed acquisition of language within the context of a child's mental or cognitive development. 2The approach is based on the well-known assumption that foreign languages are best learnt by focussing in the classroom not so much on language – its form and structure – but on the content through which language is transmitted. for example Platt & Brooks 2002), it becomes clear that some of the earlier weaknesses of the approach have been recognised and are about to be mended. Tübingen: Gunter Narr, 43-83. 18It is interesting to note that in tertiary education it is mainly vocational schools which have opted for teaching content through a foreign language. Linguistics is the scienti c study of human language. In language transmission this tends to be self-perpetuating unless deliberately interfered with. Define integration. Integration can be used to find areas, volumes, central points and many useful things. 0000066087 00000 n The tasks which they use for data elicitation are jigsaw tasks in which informants have to complete pictures or maps by interviewing their partners who possess this information. The other assumption is that communication 0000009563 00000 n 0000004172 00000 n Teachers often integrate history, geography, economics, and government in an intradisciplinary social studies program. As I will show in a moment, comprehension involves other factors which can be helpful in understanding acquisition. Lamsfuß-Schenk. In the 14 primary CLIL schools in Berlin non-German children are chosen according to their first language and put together with an equal number of German speaking children, so that we have Turkish-German, Spanish-German or Greek-German classes. 48The last point I would like to mention here is learning strategies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Constructivism and content and language integrated learning, 3.1. The marketing concept is the use of marketing data to focus on the needs and wants of customers in order to develop marketing strategies that not only satisfy the needs of the customers but also the accomplish the goals of the organization. Learning techniques and study skills are very complex abilities in language learning. And how is this maintained? They add authenticity to it; one could even go so far as to say that content subjects enforce group work in the classroom. While every language has a different set of rules, all languages do obey rules. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 11, 6671-684. 0000003268 00000 n In Bredella, L. & F.J. Meißner (eds.). The concept of integration is of course fundamental in single-variable calculus. In order to approach this learning psychological question more closely let us have a look first at what CLIL classrooms look like. Table 1. Other more formal types of interaction, for example academic discussions, or transactional interaction, have not been investigated at all. Conglomerate integration. Bilingualer Sachfachunterricht: Didaktik, Lehrer-/Lernerforschung und Bildungspolitik zwischen Theorie und Empirie. Dieter Wolff, « Integrating language and content in the language classroom: Are transfer of knowledge and of language ensured? Research and experimentation can also be carried out with language, of course, but a learning laboratory lends itself much more readily to investigation in social and natural sciences. But this is not the intention of this approach, which is geared towards content learning as much as towards language learning. Some researchers even believe that in CLIL content subject related intercultural learning takes place (Christ 2000). Only interaction of a conversational type has been analysed in this research. Such a proposal is not entirely new: in a number of schools in Europe content and language integrated learning has been introduced as a way of promoting multilingualism, and in a few universities at least some modules of certain academic subjects – like economics or information technology – are taught in a foreign language. Use and Integration of Media in Open and Distance Learning 1-1 TOPIC 1 Introduction to Open and Distance Learning ... • The time and place continuum section provides an opportunity to discuss the varieties of delivery systems possible in open and distance learning. As we all know, this is often the case in instructed language learning in school or university, where learners believe that in monotonously working through formal exercises they will learn language. Content for the language classroom is traditionally taken either from everyday life (like in school textbooks) or from specific aspects of the culture of the target language (usually in university language courses). 0000005641 00000 n trailer Language is ubiquitous. In the language of forms, this is asserting that any one-dimensional form f(x)dx 0000015216 00000 n 0000014000 00000 n The first recommendation for a three-language policy was made by the University Education Commission in 1948–49, which did not find the requirement to study three languages to be an extravagance, citing the precedents of other multilingual nations such as Belgium and Switzerland. This is indicated by the integral sign “∫,” as in ∫f(x), usually called the indefinite integral of the function. In Germany we find primary CLIL schools also in large industrial centres, for example in Berlin, where primary classes include learners of often up to eight different mother tongues. If content and language are learnt and taught in integration and not in isolation the time available for the teaching/learning process of a content subject and a foreign language doubles; length of study time both for language and content subject can thus be reduced considerably, and as a consequence, more languages can be introduced into the curriculum. Discourse and Language Education. Language is learnt because meaning is constructed. This language teaching and learning concept which is related to similar concepts in secondary education (for example the ‘European schools’ model) turns out to be very efficient with respect to the language competence attained by the students; this is at least the outcome of a small number of research projects which are confirmed by what language teachers and school authorities tell us. Jyväskylä: University of Jyväskylä. ars. 5In the first part of my paper I will propose a definition of the term content and language integrated learning. It does not convincingly explain why language learning takes place, and it does not take up the question of content learning at all. The concept of language across the curriculum is one route for implementing a curricular integration (Chamot & O'Malley, 1994). 9The second point is equally important: within a CLIL framework content and language are learnt in integration. Later on, in the development of the theory, a more far-reaching argument was added. Il est également vice-président de AILA, ex-président de GAAL (l’association allemande de linguistique appliquée) et consultant pour plusieurs agences nationales et internationales en charge d’harmoniser les politiques d’enseignement des langues. Krashen, S. 1982. Clearly, the individual knowledge of the participants (personal constructs), both their experience of the world and their linguistic knowledge, play an important role in this process; it is equally important, however that the individual knowledge stores are coordinated by the participants during the interaction. Even the most plausible approach to SLA theory, the interactionist position, is not able to fully explain why learners in a CLIL classroom learn language, and especially why they learn language better than in an ordinary classroom. In the following I will try to discuss some of my own assumptions which are embedded in Second Language Acquisition Research but more in Constructivist Learning Theory and pedagogy. Each factor is the … Table of Contents. 7“Content and language integrated learning” has been introduced recently as a common term for a number of similar approaches in Europe to teach content subjects through a foreign language. This is why exposure time can be higher for both learning components (language and content) than it could be if they were taught in isolation. integration into current educational approaches. In these schools the content subjects are, in general, different from secondary schools, ranging from information technology to economics. 0000169915 00000 n Frankfurt: Lang, 191-206. 7. The six types of integration are as follows. 0000011581 00000 n The Concept. integration synonyms, integration pronunciation, integration translation, English dictionary definition of integration. ) Language has a vital role in children’s development. 0000005262 00000 n Getting Started with English Language Learners. But C, Java, Python were altogether a different world for me. 0000008580 00000 n a retailer buys a wholesaler, a brewer buys a hop farm. “Task engagement: A turning point in foreign language development”. This involves the combination of firms that are involved in unrelated business activities. One of the most interesting proposals made is called “teaching content through a foreign language” or “content and language integrated learning” (CLIL). Disciplines such as language, mathematics and science, nurture parts of each person. Input, comprehension and interaction are the driving forces behind this explanation, and (academic) input, receptive and productive processing of content and interaction are the key features of the CLIL classroom. Like Comenius cognitive psychologists argue that a comprehender can only process input successfully if he can relate it to knowledge which is already part of his knowledge store. Language and Social Behavior Robert M. Krauss and Chi-Yue Chiu Columbia University and The University of Hong-Kong Acknowledgments: We have benefitted from discussions with Kay Deaux, Susan Fussell, Julian Hochberg, Ying-yi Hong, and Lois Putnam. In general, SLA researchers claim that it is not certain at all whether exposure time alone can account for a more highly developed foreign language competence in CLIL learners. For K-12 kids, teachers and parents. The content subjects most frequently chosen are history, geography and social sciences. In a way, experimentation with language can be prepared through more realistic research in the content subject. 0000007277 00000 n In France and Italy the minority languages (German and French) are used as the languages of instruction, in Germany one of the larger minority languages is the language in which part of the content is taught. The issues dealt with are human comprehension, interaction, input and learning. It is clear that an environment which is suited for social interaction will better promote learning and language learning processes. Language is a system that associates sounds (or gestures) with meanings in a way that uses words and sentences. Input as such is not being discussed as a relevant factor in the acquisitional process. theories about language, the 1970s and 1980s ushered in humanistic approaches to language pedagogy in North America and in Europe. 0000155988 00000 n Similarly, at tertiary level the content of the language course, when related to the academic subject studied, is more significant to the student than the everyday content of the typical course textbook. The idea is that language competence is necessary for learning in all subject areas. They are characterised by a scientific orientation and are, therefore, richer and more complex than most content dealt with in ordinary language classrooms. 2000. 0000010995 00000 n In general, teachers use both authentic and textbook materials (the latter from the content subject textbooks available in these countries). Focussing on learning strategies in a CLIL environment will help to promote students’ strategic abilities both in language and content learning. 0000004843 00000 n This is the natural process of human communication. Content can, however, also be of a more academic and scientific nature. In the scope of this paper, for the purpose of the research, content analysis method and comparative method are used. Start studying • List the 5 stages of regional integration and describe how each stage further liberalized trade.. For some, it is an inclusionary goal, implying equal opportunities and rights for all human beings. to develop contextually relevant standards (e.g., Integrating EFL Standards into Chinese Classroom Settings series; see Gu, Hughes, Murphey, Robbins, Zemach, & Zhang, 2006). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 20I cannot go into more detail here with respect to the importance of a CLIL approach in the context of promoting language and content subject competence. & R.S. Dieter Wolff, « Integrating language and content in the language classroom: Are transfer of knowledge and of language ensured? 45It is hardly necessary to underline that interaction also plays an important role in an explanation of language learning based on constructivist principles. Learners are exposed to content and language at the same time: they learn language while they learn content, and they learn content while they learn language. The potential of CLIL in the classroom, Recommandations aux auteurs pour publier dans, Catalogue des 552 revues. 0000009112 00000 n What does it mean to comprehend an utterance, an interactional turn? The following statements are related to six key concepts of second-language acquisition. Besides, there was hardly anyone to help me since I was the only one among my friends from an IT background. – Speech sounds as physical entities may be infinitely varied, but when they function as elements in a given language, as phonological units, they are highly constrained. 49There can be no doubt that CLIL is a very important new paradigm in language teaching which is worthwhile to try out even in tertiary environments. Integrating Competencies for Working Life. They assume that language learning takes place while learners interact in the target language when engaging in a task which they have to solve. The two subjects – a language and a content subject like history or geography – are related to each other and dealt with as a whole. In general, it can be estimated that in CLIL schools the age span of learners reaches from ten to twenty-one years. Lamsfuss-Schenk, 2002). by Judie Haynes. In an IT context, integration refers to the end result of a process that aims to stitch together different, often disparate, subsystems so that the data contained in each becomes part of a larger, more comprehensive system that, ideally, quickly and easily shares data when needed. 26What does the interactionist position claim? But common to all of these classrooms is the constant use of the foreign language in the classroom both in its oral and in its written form, in its receptive as well as in its productive mode. 0000015571 00000 n The four macroskills (listening, speaking, reading, writing) are all part of normal language proficiency and use. The learning contents of most content subjects are, what could be called “realia”, i.e. Two of the concepts that make language unique are grammar and lexicon. This trend influences the Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL) in our context. A definition of content and language integrated learning (CLIL), 2. This is, of course, a rather simplistic explanation. Integrating reading, writing, and oral communication in language arts is a common example. First, let me discuss the concept of integration because it leads to individuation. According to the above definition, the concept of integrated education emphasizes methods ... 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Clil content subject teachers or language teachers 46in a traditional learning environment learning. All human beings makes an enormous change here engagement: a turning point in foreign language any more discuss the concept of language integration! Listening, speaking, reading, writing ) are all based on constructivist principles the concept origin! Exclusively from contexts in which interactiontakes place and teaching in the CLIL classroom more successfully because they are using intradisciplinary! Enseignement et l ’ apprentissage des langues s development interesting research result is that as... Chamot & O'Malley, 1994 ) expresses that concept the main idea behind it is an individual construct the!