Disclaimer: This work has been submitted by a law student. Possession cannot be with the consent of the owner but the owner’s knowledge of the possession is not relevant. The doctrine of adverse possession has a particular fascination for me, but interest in this topic goes far beyond the surveying profession. Now the word “possession” has it’s ordinary meaning and the only question is whether the squatter in factual possession has an intention to possess too. A claimant must prove: Adverse possession will, as a general rule, extinguish the title of the true owner to everything above and below the surface but will be subject to existing easements unless they can be removed as part of the application. If the possession, even though not concealed, is not known, either actually or constructively, … Adverse possession is a technical area of the law and surveyors should be mindful of the legal principles required to prove a claim and encourage their clients to get expert legal advice early. The most common examples of successful adverse possession involve fencing not being in alignment with the title boundary, building over another’s title boundary, blocking off old laneways and roads and the deliberate enclosure or use of another’s land (particularly in rural settings). This presumption is highly important for a successful claim. After the expiration of this period the squatter can claim for being the title owner of the land. Under this new Act the squatter must claim for the title to the registered estate by applying to the Land Register in order to become the owner of the land. These requirements have been confirmed in the case of JA Pye (Oxford) Ltd. and others v Graham and Another [2] which is a recent case and many fundamental principles of adverse possession are discussed in this case. There are a number of well-established principles of adverse possession in the leading authority of Abbatangelo v Whittlesea City Council (Abbatangelo).1 Laming v Jennings (Laming),2 heard in the County Court of Victoria in 2017 and in the Court of Appeal in 2018, confirms and expands the principles relevant to this area of law, particularly in respect of defending a claim for adverse possession. The … The same use of the meaning of the “adverse possession” has been incorporated in the Land Registration Act 2002. This often arises when there is an honest … Adverse possession is a legal doctrine under which a person (the "adverse possessor") trespassing on real property owned by someone else may acquire valid title to it … Free resources to assist you with your legal studies! When someone possessed his land and he did nothing about it, then he loses the title of the land. Land Law Though the possession may be open, if the "message" that it is occurring is not "received" by the public, then the overall purpose of the possession is not realized. Fortunately, Mr Best was successful in appealing the decision and was soon able to claim adverse possession UK. It is! Phillip acted for the successful party in the leading Victorian Supreme Court of Victoria authority in the area of adverse possession, Abbatangelo v Whittlesea Council. The owner of the disputed land undertook surveys in 1995, 1997 and 2008 for the purpose of marking boundary posts, placing survey pegs to consider the subdivision of land and to determine what land to sell and to retain. [20] According to Denman CJ in Nepean v Doe D. Knight [21] soon after the passing of the 1833 Act it was held that “the second and third sections of the Act… have done away with the doctrine of non-adverse possession, and… the question is whether twenty years have elapsed since the right accrued whatever the nature of the possession.” [22] This statement was made also in Culley v Doe D. Taylerson [23] so what constitutes “possession” in the ordinary sense of the word? That change was really important because the number of successful claims for adverse possession has been decreased [1] . Under Section is of the Limitation Act 1980, when the period of limitation starts to runs in favour of a person, then he is in the possession of the land, he being in “adverse possession”. This prevents a squatter to claim for the land just because a specific period of time has passed. In that case it was held that the adverse possession as provided in LRA 1925 did not constitute any violation of the registered owner’s entitlement to peaceful enjoyment of his possessions. “ In brief, a person is in adverse possession for the purposes of the 2002 Act, if but for the disapplication by section 96 of that Act of periods of limitation against a registered proprietor, a period of limitation would run in his favour in relation to the estate under section 15 of the Limitation Act 1980″. Given the timeframe, clients need to obtain advice quickly and be sure of their position before embarking on costly litigation. Clients who rely on predecessors in title need to be careful when making a claim to ensure that they independently verify what the previous owner tells them and to obtain a formal deed of assignment of possessory rights. The general rule of thumb is that to take an adverse possession case all the way to trial is going to cost each party $50,000. Ideally, you want an attorney who has experience representing adverse possessors in trespass to try title lawsuits. Adverse possession is a means by which title to land can be acquired by taking possession for a period of time. In that case it was held that the adverse possession as provided in LRA 1925 … After 1833 the notion of “adverse possession” was reintroduced by the Limitation Act 1939 (section 10) and is exactly the same as in paragraph 8(1) of schedule 1 to the 1980 Act. Surveyors can assist clients by checking whether previous surveys exist and checking measurements and positions of fences, surveying all parts of the land and being careful of making statements in a surveyor’s report which are not verified by the surveyor with first hand knowledge. Phillip is a property and business lawyer with particular expertise in property development, adverse possession, compulsory acquisition and title issues such as easements, roads and restrictive covenants. So, any squatter must satisfy all the conditions above before the time started to run in his favour. This is because it would be unfair a squatter to succeed to his claim without the paper owner has the opportunity to find out what is happening on his land. I know, sounds riduclous right? The Court found that there was a potential claim for adverse possession but the main issue was whether or not ASIC was subject to the statutory immunity from adverse possession as being part of the Crown (Section 7 of the Limitation of Actions Act). The Court found that the lack of enclosure and the acts done by the alleged possessor were not sufficient to establish the necessary intention to possess. The ECJ reached to the conclusion that depriving a land owner of land without any compensation is in breach of article 1 which is referred to the entitlement to the peaceful enjoyment of possessions and is also unlawful, except in the case where a compensation is paid. This means that the rule in Leigh v Jack has been clearly rejected. Before the expiry of this period the paper owner can evict the squatter. Their possession has continued for at least 15 years without interruption. An adverse possessor’s use must be “exclusive" and “continuous." It will always be difficult to make a claim if there is no attempt to exclude people off the land (usually done by enclosure or signage). Firstly, “ factual possession” and secondly “intention to possess”. Company Registration No: 4964706. Registered office: Venture House, Cross Street, Arnold, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, NG5 7PJ. Claims can be made to Land Victoria under the Transfer of Land Act 1958 (Vic), by seeking a declaration from the County Court of Victoria or Supreme Court of Victoria pursuant to the Limitation of Actions Act 1958 (Vic) or via the Magistrate’s Court of Victoria pursuant to the Fences Act 1968 (Vic). Furthermore, in many cases squatters show that if the paper owner asked from them to pay for their occupation in the land they would have done it. As Slade J said in Powell “factual possession signifies on appropriate degree of physical control.” [25] In vary old cases the judges treated the concept of intention to possess as being necessary that the squatter must have an intention to own the land in order to be in possession. Over the years, a few fruit trees were also planted on the disputed land. Before the enrolment of the Real Property Limitation Acts 1833 and 1874, the rights of the papers owner were not taken away save by a “disseisin” and use of the land by the squatter of a kind that was clearly inconsistent with the paper title. The case presents a good overview of this powerful, yet sometimes-forgotten legal doctrine. For example in Littledale v Liverpool college [26] Lindley MR mentioned to the claimant relying on “acts of ownership”. But, what I thought to suggest is that there must be some difference in spend which results in greater results. Lord Diplock in ocean Estates ltd v Pinder [29] indicate that the squatter would be able to pay if the paper owner asked it did not means an absence of an intention to possess. Claiming Adverse Possession in Western Australia. As Chief Justice Cockburn noted in Seddon v Smith (1877) one very strong evidence of factual possession is the enclosure by fencing. The typical case would be a fence enclosing a portion of property belonging to another. Smart v London Borough of Lambeth This case involved a handful of properties in Clapham, which were acquired by Lambeth London Borough Council in … The Limitation Act 1980 put a limit of 12 years in relation to unregistered land. For, adverse possession requires that the true owner be given the opportunity to effectively deal with and terminate the same on the part of the claimant. Lesson #3: All Necessary Parties Must Be Part of an Adverse Possession Case. revived the “heresy”. In addition to this the decision of the court of Appeal in the case of R v Secretary of state for the Environment, Ex p Davies [30] was wrong. If the property was sold in the last 15 years, see if the claimant made an offer to buy the land; Check if it is a lane or road on a subdivision, as it might also benefit the lot owner of the subdivision who can object to the claim; Research the history of the fences and see if there has been a break in possession; Check old surveys and aerial photos to work out position of fences over the 15 year period; Consider issuing a notice to fence to bring the matter to a head. The Abbatangelo v Whittlesea City Council case sets out some useful guidance on the principles considered for a claim to be successful. Surveyors should check if land is noted as a lane or road and if there are title discrepancies, note these to clients for further investigation. You can view samples of our professional work here. Celebrating over 45 years of premium legal service. Always obtain legal advice early and ensure a survey is undertaken to establish the actual measurements to see what is in contention. The decision in Pinder is correct since it is consistent with principle. Bhatha lodged a caveat claiming a freehold estate in some land by adverse possession. The concept of “non-adverse possession” is deemed to be the root of the problem. In relation to registered land, according to 75(1) of the Land Registration Act 1925 after the expiry of the limitation period the title is not extinguished but the registered owner hold the land thereafter in trust for the squatter. As Professor Dakray says “such inconsistent use was called adverse possession”. Take a look at some weird laws from around the world! If you intend to file a suit for adverse possession, it's best to have an experienced attorney on your side. But before you can work out how to defend a claim, we need to understand how a claim is made. In many adverse possession cases, the plaintiffs’ claim to property arises from a long-held, yet mistaken, belief that they own the land at issue. The decision in the case of Buckinghamshire cc v Moran [13] has been approved by the House of Lords in Pye v Graham. Enclosure is the best possible evidence of an intention. The company had no Crown immunity and so ASIC did not have the benefit of Crown immunity in respect to the property. However, in the recent case of Thorpe v Frank 2019 EWCA Civ 150, the Court of Appeal seemed to … Copyright © 2003 - 2020 - LawTeacher is a trading name of All Answers Ltd, a company registered in England and Wales. process by which someone who is not the legal owner of a piece of land can have land transferred to them following possession and exclusive occupation of it for a specified period of time Secondly, the possession of the land must occur without the consent of the paper owner. Some recent cases are really important since they take the law in a new direction. Before 1833 “adverse possession bore a highly technical meaning. Today, with the introduction of the Land Registration Act 2002, vigilance is not necessary since the estate owner will be informed by the Land Registry when a squatter applies to be registered as title owner. Adverse possession commencing after December 31, 1945 shall not be deemed adverse possession under color of title until the instrument upon which the claim of title is founded is recorded in the office of the clerk of the circuit court of the county where the property is located. The case of J A Rye (Oxford) Ltd v Graham applies to all cases of adverse possession. Registered Data Controller No: Z1821391. In Ofulue v Bossert the court of Appeal confirms that all principles of adverse possession of land under the Land Registration Act 1925 have returned to the state where they exist before the Human Rights Act 1998 that came into force in 2000. Moreover, this case applies equally whether the disputed land is registered or unregistered. The Land Registration Act 2002 set 10 years period of time that the squatter can possess a land and not 12 years as in unregistered land. This concept was noted by the common law end equity into the limitation statute of James. The case concerned a claim by the defendant over part of the plaintiff’s land claiming title by possession for an area of approximately 1400 square metres. possession under a licence from him or under some contract or trust” [6] . [18]. Here it was held that possession can be adverse when the acts done were inconsistent with the purposes for which the paper were inconsistent with the purposes for which the paper owner thinking to use the land. Thirdly, there must be a factual possession as in Powell v Mcfarlane [3] . [7], After 1925 the law has been changed. For a successful adverse possession claim, and to be registered as the owner of the land, one of the elements which has to be proven, is that you have been in physical possession of the land. Looking for a flexible role? [15] Moreover in Beaulane Properties ltd v Palmer [16] , Nicholas Strauss Q.C. The Irish Courts in assessing the factual possession element of adverse possession may draw on the persuasive authority of this UK decision and could potentially result in more cases in Ireland making successful claims for adverse possession, provided the person making the application is still able to prove they have acted in a way typical of an owner of that land. Liability Limited by a Scheme under Professional Standards Legislation. There are strict time limits imposed on registered proprietors to lodge a caveat to prevent an adverse possession claim (30 days) and proceedings need to be issued within a further 30 days. Fencing and enclosing the land and payment of rates suggests an intention. The legal term for this is "adverse possession." Do you have a 2:1 degree or higher? From 1833 the only question in relation to a squatter was whether had been in possession in the ordinary meaning of the word. … The only intention that we have to probe is that there was an intention to occupy and use the land as our property. Requirements for a claim In order to make a successful claim for adverse possession in both registered land and unregistered land, the squatter must establish factual possession and that they had the intention to possess. However Hoffmann J in Moran case [27] submitted that what is necessary is “not an intention to possess”. Adverse possession essentially allows a trespasser onto a piece of land to gain ownership of that land if the true owner fails to object within a certain period of time and if the trespasser pays faithful property taxes on the subject land. The orders for the easement are subject to appeal to be heard late 2018. Claims usually start when a party wants to replace a fence or undertake a development, subdivision or renovation and obtains a survey. TLFC Principal and Business Law Specialist, Phillip Leaman shares his expertise on Adverse Possession in an article featured in the March 2018 issue of Traverse, the News Bulletin of The Institution of Surveyors Victoria. The mere fact that adverse possession was based on criminal trespass did not preclude a successful claim to adverse possession under Sch.6. Adverse possession, sometimes colloquially described as " squatter's rights ", is a legal principle under which a person who does not have legal title to a piece of property — usually land (real property) — acquires legal ownership based on continuous possession or occupation of the property without the permission of its legal owner. The case above shows that in order to make a successful claim for adverse possession a person must show that they have been in actual possession of the property and have treated it as their own excluding all others from use. As Slade J says that is still the law. “ Now that Ofulue has followed Pye v United Kingdom, the reasoning of the Grand chamber will be binding in future English cases where the registered proprietor disputes whether the squatter has proved the required intention to possess the land.” [17], The fact that the reasoning in that Pye v Unites Kingdom has been incorporated into domestic law it is very important because when the grand Chamber held in 2007 that the LRA 1925 regime did not violate the ECHR, the Land Registry continued to faced the case of Palmer as a binding authority in domestic law. Adverse use is a requirement for one of these claims, and this presumption helps a claimant make this required showing. In that way the situations for any possible registration of a manor were increased, because many manors pass by being included in a settlement or by assent on the death of the lord. This situation was presented in a May 28, 2019 Massachusetts real estate case before the Land Court. [19] Another important issue in relation to the development od adverse possession through the years is that remains a long standing confusing as to what constitutes “dispossession and the place, if any, of “adverse possession” in the modern law. Apart from the attack by the plaintiff that there was not sufficient possession of the land, the plaintiff was successful in breaking the 15 year period due to: It is important to note that a mere letter objecting to the possession will not be enough to stop time running. Adverse possession is a legal principle enabling the occupier of a piece of land to obtain ownership. Through adverse possession, a trespasser can gain ownership of just a few feet of property or hundreds of acres. It is important that you are sure that 15 years possession has not accrued otherwise you could be committing a trespass and subject to a claim for damages. Level 2, 333 Queen Street, Melbourne Victoria 3000, Adverse Possession – How to Defend a Claim, article featured in the March 2018 issue of, Tisher Liner FC Law (TLFC) Privacy Policy, That they have had actual possession of the land which is exclusive to the paper title owner and the world at large. The more difficult case would be a line of “boundary trees" planted by an adverse possessor. Adverse possession is linked to the principle of limitation of action (see s.15 Limitation Act 1980)but goes beyond this as the previous owners rights may be extinguished. Today it merely means possession inconsistent with and in denial of the title of the true owner, and not, e.g. Elements of Adverse Possession. Some acts alone may not be sufficient to establish possession but when combined with other acts may be enough to make a claim; and, They had an intention to possess the land. In the same way Slade J in Powell mentioned to the necessary intention as being an “intention to own”. The significant point for present purposes is not that we have to show that there was a deliberate intention to exclude the paper owner. “Possession need not be inconsistent with the future intended use of the land by the paper owner to be adverse” [14] . The doctrine of adverse possession provides that sometimes a trespasser can become a rightful owner. Under Washington State case law and statutes, an adverse possessor can usually only claim a right to the property after 10 years. How do claims start? A key point of the above case was that Mrs Kirkby used the Verge to hold scaffolding when she was redeveloping her own property. What appears on its face to be a temporary trespass may in fact constitute sufficient taking of possession for the purposes of adverse possession, depending on the nature of land in question and the manner in which land of that nature is commonly used and enjoyed. Anyone who can claim adverse possession under the old regime will want to do so, as there are fewer obstacles to a successful claim. (2) For the purpose of this section, property is deemed possessed in any of the following cases: (a) When it has been usually cultivated or improved. *You can also browse our support articles here >. There was evidence that the alleged possessor mowed the disputed land and undertook a variety of activities on the land including ball games, storing wood on the land, undertaking burning of green waste and occasional picnics. Slate L said in Powell’s case: “in the absence od evidence to the contrary, the owner of land with the paper title is deemed to be in possession of the land as being the person with the prime facie right to possession.” [24] Slad J adopted this definition from Roman law and by all judges and writers from past. This qualification is provided in Section 32 of the Limitation Act 1980 which says that possession must not be deliberately concealed. Beaulane V Palmer, now cannot stand after Ofulue. This case confirms the position that claims against original subdivider companies long deregistered can be validly made, notwithstanding the asset might be registered in ASIC’s name. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not reflect the views of LawTeacher.net. The final and really important step in relation to the development of the doctrine of adverse possession through the year is that after Rye v united Kingdom it was incorporated a compulsory purchase compensation is because of the Human Rights Act 1998 and of the European Court of Justice. The case of J A Rye (Oxford) Ltd v Graham [9] applies to all cases of adverse possession. You should not treat any information in this essay as being authoritative. An alternative claim was made by the defendant that he had acquired an easement through the doctrine of the lost modern grant. And the trespasser doesn’t need to intend to take the land by adverse possession. [31] It is very important to understand for now and for the future too what the use of the word “adverse” in the context of section 15 of the Limitation Act 1980 was intended to convey. There must be an intention to possess, too. It is almost impossible to establish adverse possession without some form of enclosure; and. . This new Act Set a new regime for the registration of an adverse possessor of an estate in land. Attorneys, employees of government agencies and the general public all become enthusiastic when squatters’ rights or trespass are mentioned. Reference this. Adverse possession is a complex area of property law, and successful cases of adverse possession are rare. To limit the doctrine of adverse possession to the latter possession places a premium on intentional wrongdoing contrary to fundamental justice and policy. For more information concerning adverse possession and making and defending claims, please contact Phillip Leaman at pleaman@tlfc.com.au or on 03 8600 9333. After doing so, the party opposing such a claim has the burden to overcome this presumption, and show that such use was allowed. The most important result from Ofulue was that Lord Browne-Wilkinson called in the case of Pye v Graham, the “heresy” in Leigh v Jack [11] .In this case Bramwelll L.J noted that possession by a squatter is only adverse if his occupation is inconsistent with the paper owner’s plans for the land [12] . Assets of deregistered companies vest in the name of the Australian Securities and Investment Commission (ASIC). This successful adverse possession case involves two adjoining landowners and a disused right of access, previously a "dunny lane". [28] The court of Appeal in that case adopted this correct proposition. Apart from a mow line, there was no difference between the disputed land and the balance of the plaintiff’s land. Mere personal convenience will not constitute a sufficient intention. Claimants without 15 years possession in their own right should speak to neighbours, search survey records and speak to previous owners to establish possession. As indicated above, that seems to be an obscene amount of money. However, the rationale for allowing acquisition of title through adverse possession … In the case of Buckinghamshire cc v Moran [1990] was highlighted the requirements which must be met to establish a successful claim on adverse possession. In some cases, you have one shot to make a claim successfully. The problem could be avoided saying that there are two elements which are necessary for legal possession. The affect of the Land Registration Act 2002 it is very important since it make it much harder for a squatter who is in possession of registered land to obtain a title for it against the wishes of the owner. Adverse possession is controversial since in effect it permits squatters to lawfully steal land. The intention to posses is known as “animus possessendi”. If a client has large parcels of land and it is surveyed, it may be enough to restart the clock for an adverse possession claim if the surveyor surveys all the land and marks boundaries. Section 96 of the Land Registration Act 2002 provides that the time of 12 years under Limitation Act 1980, after which the paper owner can evict the squatter, will not be valid to registered land. The alleged possessor making an offer to purchase the plaintiff’s land which constituted an acknowledgement of title for the purpose of section 24 and 25 of the. The Court found a claim could therefore be made against a deregistered company. The case of Edington v Clark (1964) is an example of this necessary qualification. One of the best ways to prove you have physical possession of the land is to fence off or otherwise enclose the land. VAT Registration No: 842417633. This was established in the case of Buckinghamshire CC v Moran and was affirmed in the case of Pye v Graham. so far as is reasonably practicable and so far as the process of laws will allow” [5] .Finally, according to Section 29 and 30 of the Limitation Act 1980 if the squatter receive any written acknowledgement of the paper owner’s title the time will stop running in favour of the squatter. Yet sometimes-forgotten legal doctrine for adverse possession may be acquired though the property through adverse possession a. To have an experienced attorney on your side a deregistered company [ 3 ] Act 1980 put a limit 12. “ not an example of this necessary qualification be some difference in spend which results greater. 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